Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean Sea situated about 145 km south of Cuba and 161 km southwest of Haiti. The area of the island 11,420 sq km.
Jamaica’s terrain is marked by a series of interior mountain ranges which extend from east to west. Many small rivers and streams flow to the north and south of the central plateau, before cascading into the Caribbean Sea across lowlands and coastal plains. The principal mountain range known as the Blue Mountains is situated in the eastern section of the island, of which Blue Mountain Peak is the highest point, measuring 2,256m above sea level. The irregular coastline is 1,022 km long, and is marked by natural harbours, secluded bays, magnificent beaches and rugged cliffs. Thermal springs, limestone caves and beautiful waterfalls can be found in various areas.
Jamaica's motto is "Out of Many, One People." In addition, it is home to over three thousand species of plants, of which about one-quarter are found nowhere else on Earth. Birdlife is abundant and highly diversified. The swallow-tail hummingbird is found only in Jamaica and is an important national symbol.
According to the Statistical Institute of Jamaica, the island's population was approximately 2,711,476 as of the end of 2013. Residents reside in the island's fourteen parishes: Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, St. Andrew, St. Ann, St. Catherine, St. Elizabeth, St. James, St. Mary, St. Thomas, Trelawny, and Westmoreland. The highest concentration is found in and around the nation's capital of Kingston with almost half of the population (43.7%) occupying three parishes (Kingston, St. Andrew, and St. Catherine), while the least populated areas are found in less developed parishes.